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A picture to calm down the Chinese elite!
Release time: 2018-04-23 16:01 Clicks: Times of: network

After ZTE's death, Huawei also made trouble. Trump's hole card is this picture! Danger is big machine!


     
 






This China-US technology gap radar chart released by McKinsey is worth collecting.
This is a picture that can calm Chinese elites! The trade war is a comprehensive multi-round game based on strength. Only by knowing the other can you increase your odds.
This precise blow to ZTE is extremely deterrent, and now it is subpoenaed by Huawei. Trump's negotiation weight in this round is very heavy!
Although we have seen that Trump ’s hole card is never an all-out trade war, one is because the businessman will not do double-lose, and the other is that the US system makes him unable to bear the consequences of the real fight: the domestic chicken flying dog jump is inevitable. He stepped down. The Chinese system has a much stronger ability to withstand shocks and tolerate difficulties in this regard. Danger is big machine!
The country can take the pain of the trade war, concentrate N-times' human resources and promulgate stronger policies, vigorously develop high-tech technologies such as technology industries and chips, deepen internal reforms and double the size and quality of the private economy, which will waste real estate and Huge funds in low-energy and inefficient surplus areas such as mixed reforms are directed to these key areas that determine China's future competitiveness! We have to "Thank" to Trump for strengthening the externalities and accelerating the consensus on deepening reforms in China!
Trade wars mainly occur in these fully competitive fields, and private enterprises are the main force in fully competing industries! This round of China's deepening reforms catalysed by the trade war, if China can once again release and stimulate the scientific and technological vitality of the private economy, China's historical process of becoming stronger and stronger will be realized at a rapid rate.

01. Now the trade war is loading bullets and waiting for the trigger to go off, everyone is whispering, what exactly is this guy Trump?
Solving the trade deficit, boosting employment, and building momentum for the midterm elections? Adhere to China as a non-market economy and maintain the operation of the international trading system?
This is no longer a simple trade imbalance. It seems that it has evolved into an industrial contest between the two great powers, and it is the complete containment of the rising power of emerging powers by the defending powers.
02. American media are highly vigilant about the rise of China's science and technology. China's WeChat has actually appeared in the media that "the United States is scared to urinate".
As early as February of this year, Stratfor, a well-known geopolitical think tank in the United States, released "The Coming Science and Technology War Against China". The report praises China's remarkable achievements in the field of hypersonic missiles, human gene editing technology and quantum satellites in recent years. It reads that there is a faint sense of pride in the chest, and in the words, it is often questioned whether American technology companies can catch up with Chinese counterparts Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence:
Artificial intelligence will bring a radical change to the military and people's livelihood, and China is pressing the United States step by step in this regard. The three-year artificial intelligence plan released by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology at the end of 2017 revealed China's ambition to achieve self-sufficiency in the core technology field. Chinese officials even teamed up with folk technology giants to form a "dream team".

(Please note that the unit of R & D expenditure between China and the United States is US $ 1 billion)






The week before the tit-for-tat between China and the United States, the British "The Economist" covered the cover of "China-US Technology Hegemony" with a cover, saying that "I have seen everything well".
"Designed in California, made in China", the words behind the Apple phone once represented the division of labor between the world's two largest economies. Now that the planet is turning, the technological threat China poses to the United States has rattled the United States. Will Sino-U.S. Technology hegemony trigger trade war?


The "New York Times" is even harder. The Sino-US trade war will accelerate the world's most advanced industries into the new Cold War era. It will be colder than the US-Soviet Cold War and more difficult to resolve than the US-Japan trade war:
Previously, Japan was a competitor in technology but an ally in the military. The Soviet Union was an adversary in national defense technology, but it was far worse in business ... but China had strong scientific and technological strength and capital in the battle for cutting-edge areas such as artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and the next-generation wireless Internet.

To put it plainly, Western media do not consider this a trade war between soybean sorghum and steel and aluminum. The United States is jealous of China's achievements in top science and technology fields in recent years, and it is enough to launch a battle for science and technology hegemony.
Is it really so great for my country? In recent years, China has become so strong in the high-tech field that it has the potential to overwhelm the United States?
,以下你将看到美国人对自己国情严重的认知不足! High-energy warning , below you will see that Americans have a serious lack of awareness of their national conditions!
03. How does the United States reach the pinnacle of technology in the top technology fields, and how it is outrageous.
(1) The United States can restrict China's manufacture with one engine. Why is China's first domestically produced large aircraft C919 only equivalent to the American Boeing 737 50 years ago?
Why is China's best high-altitude helicopter currently available from the United States in the 1980s?
Why is there still a gap of about 10 between the Chinese Fighter ’s Fighter J-20 and the American F-22?
The most important thing is the "heart" problem. Marking a country's highest sophisticated, most powerful and most technologically intensive field, it is the aviation industry known as the "modern industrial crown", and the crown jewel is the aviation engine. And China has done its best for more than half a century, and has yet to build a mature and reliable core machine.
At present, the top technologies mastered in the United States are: mature civil turbofan engines with large bypass ratio, fourth-generation military turbofan engines with low bypass ratio and high thrust, fifth-generation military non-geometric structural variable-cycle turbofan engines, military / civilian High-power turboshaft / turboprop ...
Because of two F119 engines with a thrust of 156 kN, the U.S. fighter F-22 can make many incredible maneuvers. It is also the only fighter in the world that can cruise at supersonic speed without additional afterburner. For US hegemony Vital.
          Because of the four TF39 turbofan engines with a thrust of 191 kN, the US C-5 Galaxy dared to say loudly that it was the strongest transport aircraft in service in the world, none of them. The upper deck can carry 75 passengers. Under full load, it can take off at a distance of 2300 meters and land at a distance of 1493 meters. The load capacity of the fuselage can be estimated as: 100 Volkswagen Beetles / 6 Greyhound buses / 6 Apache helicopters / 2 M1A2 main battle tanks / 1 C-130. It was developed in 1961 and entered service in 1970.
Aviation engines need to work under the severe conditions of high temperature, high pressure, high speed and high load, and meet the thrust / power, light weight, high reliability, good safety, long life, low fuel consumption, low noise, low pollution, etc. Very demanding and contradictory requirements.
          Therefore, it also involves countless disciplines such as materials science, aerodynamics, and structural mechanics. It is one of the most complex and multi-disciplinary engineering machinery systems in the world today. The shortcomings of any discipline will cause the level of aero-engines to be limited. It is no exaggeration to say that the level of aero engines is the level of a country's basic science and the height of the manufacturing industry, and of course, it must add the ability to burn money.
          This is why, as a "big cottage country", after studying for so many years, it has not been able to come up with a mass-produced engine that represents China's high-end manufacturing. There is no way to break through in this high-tech field, and naturally you can understand why Han Han, who is a racing driver, complains that China cannot give a decent car engine.
(2) America's unique giant astronomical telescope dominates the field of optics
          The high-quality digital cameras Nikon and Canon in daily life are from Japan, but in fact, when the United States launched the Hubble telescope (carrying a 2.4-meter diameter giant lens), Japan could not process the same type of equipment of 0.5-meter class.
          The United States is the world's most advanced optical power, and only the United States can process ultra-large diameter optical lenses.
          Let's see what it means to be a true "journey is the sea of stars": Recently, NASA said that the Weber telescope, which was originally called the "most powerful telescope in history" scheduled to enter service this year, will be postponed to 2020, so that engineers can have more More time to ensure the success of the task.
          The caliber of this giant telescope is three times that of the Hubble Space Telescope, about 100 times more sensitive than Hubble, but half the mass of Hubble. Its main task is to investigate the residual infrared evidence as a theory of the Big Bang. After deployment, it will allow astronomers unprecedented insight into the first galaxies formed in the early universe.
          While the United States was developing a super-thin film lens device with a diameter of 100 meters, China was still working on a large-scale giant lens device with a diameter of 4 meters, and the technological gap was stark.
          What's more terrible is that the giant lens equipment system is the core and key equipment of military optical reconnaissance satellites and reconnaissance systems.
          The most advanced optical imaging reconnaissance satellite today is Keyhole-12 (KH-12) in the United States, with a ground resolution of 0.1-0.3 meters, enough to count tanks, tents and personnel in the desert.
          U.S. civilian remote sensing satellites are not bad, taking satellite photos of Shanghai's Pudong New Area of 0.35 meters
          The two high-end technologies of engine and optics largely determine how far a country's aerospace technology can go. China has made many breakthroughs in the past decade, but the gap with the United States is still huge.
In addition, the U.S. achievements in the design and manufacture of heavy / ultra-heavy rockets, space station technology, lunar exploration technology, and deep space exploration technology are still unbreakable.








(3) New materials to disrupt the industry
          The use of new materials in key components is likely to disrupt the entire industry. In addition to heat-resistant new materials on engine fans, how many new materials are used in the United States?
Let's start with the "confidential" level.
          This American science fiction B-2 ghost, which has made the world tremble, is the only stealth strategic bomber in the world, each costing $ 2.4 billion. Most of the surface of B-2 is covered by a layer of special elastic material, so that the surface maintains a uniform electrical conductivity to reduce the reflection of radar waves from the joints or seams. In the design, parts that cannot be made invisible by appearance (such as air intakes) will be coated with radar absorbing material (RAM). Its composition is still highly confidential. Development began in the mid-1970s and entered service in 1997.
          Another masterpiece of extraterrestrial looks, the reconnaissance aircraft SR-71, Blackbird, which has not been shot down by any enemy aircraft or anti-control missiles in actual combat records, is still the fastest manned aircraft in the world. Blackbird's technological breakthrough lies in the thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is more than three times the speed of sound. The maximum speed of the blackbird is Mach 3.35. At this speed, aviation aluminum will become brittle and soft, so the low weight and high strength adopted by the blackbird. Titanium alloys and composites are the key to true technology.

Let's take a look at the more "grounded gas":
          A. Lithium-air batteries are expected to disrupt the electric vehicle industry's longest range of 540 kilometers for the US Tesla Model S. The use of "three yuan lithium" batteries is already the longest of all electric vehicle range.
However, recently the United States has heard news that they have created lithium-air batteries, which greatly inspired the field of electrochemical energy storage.
This battery with extremely high theoretical energy density has been successfully charged and discharged 700 times, breaking the previous limitation that lithium-air batteries can only use pure oxygen and short cycle life. It is expected to replace the most successful rechargeable battery lithium-ion batteries so far. Electric vehicle mileage bottleneck.

B. Semiconductor overlords that cannot be easily challenged
"Semiconductor King" Intel announced the launch of several 3D XPoint memories this year, with a single maximum capacity starting at 512G. The industry exclaimed that this is a revolution in the PC field.
Tsinghua Ziguang expects to launch a DDR4 memory module this year, with a single capacity of up to 128GB. At present, it is still in the third-generation technology DDR3, with a single maximum capacity of 64GB.
Semiconductor materials are widely distributed from mobile phone chips to cruise missile controllers, from civilian to military, and are the core technology of the electronic information industry. American semiconductor production has occupied 48% of the global market for many years, and Intel's R & D expenditure has reached 4 times as much as the entire Chinese chip industry.
According to the statistics of the Semiconductor Industry Association of America (SIA), the annual sales of semiconductors in the entire Chinese market are about US $ 100 billion (China's self-sufficiency rate is less than 10%), of which US companies account for nearly 60%, and US companies export to China at least Over $ 50 billion.
But the United States' "blockade" against China in the semiconductor field has never relaxed.
During the Cold War, Europe, the United States, Japan, and other countries organized a Paris coordinating committee (referred to as Batumi for short) to restrict the export of foreign technology. Batumi was dissolved after the end of the Cold War. However, the United States then established a Wassenaar agreement with many countries to continue to restrict foreign technology exports, especially high-tech, semiconductor technology is the focus of this. Therefore, according to US export regulations, 14nm chip process manufacturing can be moved to China, but Intel's X86 CPU design and other key technology design must not leave the United States.
In recent years, China's tens of billions of dollars in investment in the semiconductor industry, self-sufficient requirements for chip manufacturing in China Made 2025, and Tsinghua Unisplendour and Hisilicon among the top ten global semiconductor companies, the United States has been more strict against Chinese semiconductors. .
In this Sino-U.S. Trade war talks, Trump asked very clearly that he hoped that China would continue to increase imports of US semiconductor chips.
At the same time, in recent years, the U.S. authorities have used "national security" as the reason for several acquisitions initiated by Chinese companies acquiring U.S. semiconductor companies:
          In December 2015, Tsinghua Ziguang acquired US chip storage giant Micron for $ 23 billion;
          In February 2016, China Venture Capital and China Resources led the acquisition of Fairchild Semiconductor in the US for US $ 2.6 billion;
          In September 2017, Canyon Bridge, a private equity firm with a Chinese background, acquired US chip company Lattice for $ 1.3 billion;
          ...
          In February 2018, Chinese semiconductor investment fund Hubei Xinyan purchased US semiconductor test equipment vendor Xcerra for $ 580 million;
          In March 2018, a Broadcom Singapore acquisition of Qualcomm was rejected because Qualcomm was one of the few wireless chip companies making long-term investments, and the other was Huawei. Trump fears that Qualcomm will be the leader in 5G wireless standards after the acquisition of Qualcomm.          

(4) Biopharmaceuticals that profit from profits
          The absolute leader in the field of American-style biopharmaceuticals. The number of biopharmaceutical companies ranks first in the world. Wall Street's capital is also following wildly for biopharmaceuticals. In 2017, there were 11 American companies in the global TOP25 of IPOs of biopharmaceutical companies.
Such as oncology drugs. According to Professor Yu Dechao of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the United States has approved 48 new drugs in the past few years, and basically every tumor has 1-5 new drugs on the market. For example, five years ago, doctors could choose only three medicines for lung cancer. Today, doctors can choose a dozen medicines for treating lung cancer. U.S. tumor morbidity and mortality have plummeted. Today, the five-year survival rate for tumors in the United States is 70%, while in China it is less than 30%.
Like vaccines. At present, the United States is basically a polysaccharide vaccine with no live bacteria and strict requirements. It cannot use phenolic fungicides. It has even begun to market protein-binding vaccines with stronger targeting and stronger immunity.
However, the main force of China's domestic vaccines is still live bacteria, attenuated vaccines such as BCG in the early 20th century. How much toxicity is reduced is truly safe, and there is no absolute indicator.
China's high-end drugs are basically imported from European and American countries. Speaking of which, medical equipment and medical consumables have to be mentioned. Foreign brands are almost the dominant in the market. Among them, General Electric has properly segmented the market in nuclear medicine, ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance MRI, and CT.

(5) Artificial intelligence
          This state-of-the-art technology, considered by former United States Deputy Secretary of Defense Robert Walker, will change the nature of future wars and the form of conflict, and the United States maintains its lead.
          The familiar human-computer interaction function Siri on Apple's mobile phone is the CALO project invested by the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA in 2003, and this project can also be traced back to the artificial intelligence research started at Stanford University in the 1960s.
          Alpha Go, developed by Google, is the first artificial intelligence program to defeat human professional Go players and the first to defeat Go world champions.
          In the past year, Google's Waymo has reached 350,000 miles in autonomous driving in California, while the number of times it has been taken over by the driver from the autonomous driving mode is only 63 times.
          Except for the United States itself, through capital and law, the United States has more top-level technologies than it can imagine.
          For example, China's Wuzhi 10 engine used a Canadian civilian model during the test flight. This model was better than China's best military products at the time, but the United States said no, Canada would not dare to sell it again. As a result, China Wuzhi 10 had to redesign at the last minute.
          Such as civil computer systems, databases. China's large state-owned enterprises and SOEs are still buying systems from Microsoft and data management services from Oracle.
       
The radar chart of the China-US gap in technology released by McKinsey in 2013 is still outdated. It will take at least 20 years for China to catch up with the current scientific and technological achievements of the United States.
          When the economic divide is getting smaller, China should pay more attention to whether the technological divide can also keep the corresponding speed narrowing.
Although the West has been focusing on the progress made by China in recent years:
          China was the first to develop a high-performance quantum radar in the world, China was the first to design a quantum computer, China was the first to develop a quantum communication satellite, and China was the first to complete an anti-communication quantum experiment. China was the first to break through the all-electric propulsion technology, China was the first to break through the four-wing tilt rotor technology, China was the first to independently build a space station, and China was the first to achieve continuous mining of combustible ice ...
          China does have the confidence of Made in China 2025, but we must also see the real gap. Behind the Sino-U.S. Technology divide is not only the competition between major powers in R & D investment, but also generations of dedicated research, innovation and respect for intellectual property rights.

04. The harsh reality of China's manufacturing industry: a small foreign company can paralyze China's trillion-scale industry
          This is a good article that deeply analyzes the domestic manufacturing industry. It explains the core issues and some key issues in the process of China's industrialization. It involves many fields such as technology, talents, systems, and policies. The pain, in this impetuous society, it is not easy to solve these problems, the author also put forward solutions and methods.
The industry "hidden champion" refers to a small and medium-sized enterprise that is absolutely leading in a certain market segment and has become the top three in the world in its own field. Most of the "invisible champions" are located in the upper reaches of the industry chain. Because they do not have direct contact with end consumers and the public is relatively low in popularity, they are called "invisible."
          But because of mastering the industry's core technology, key components or key materials, it enjoys an irreplaceable status and is the real behind-the-scenes controller of the industry. It is reported that there are more than 3,000 invisible champion companies in the world, Germany has 1,307 companies, the largest number, and although China is the world's largest manufacturing country, the world's second largest economy, many industries are also the world's best, but these industries are often large. Not strong, the fundamental reason lies in its core technology, key components and materials are mostly monopolized in the hands of foreign "hidden champion" companies. Please add WeChat public account: industrial intelligence (robotinfo) Ma Yun is paying attention
          Therefore, in order for China's industry to become stronger and stronger and to have the right to speak, more "invisible champions" are needed to focus on solving the industry's key technologies, core components and special materials, and to provide professional and high-quality products and services.
As we all know, although China's integrated circuit industry has shown a leap-forward development in recent years, the problem of "lack of cores" with a high degree of external dependence has always been the biggest pain point: core technology is controlled by people, and key components and materials have long been monopolized by foreign companies. 90% of domestic chips rely on imports, and in 2016 exceeded US $ 220 billion. Many industries in China are like the electronics industry, because of the lack of "cores", they have a large body but do not have the right to speak, such as:
          China's steel output is the largest in the world, but special steel needs to rely heavily on imports;
          China's high-speed rail is China's business card, but the core power system and control system must come from foreign companies such as Siemens and ABB, and even the screws depend on imports;
          China has the largest ballpoint pen production in the world, but cannot make ballpoints for ballpoint pen cores;
          China has the largest PC production, but computer chips are basically monopolized by the US Intel and AMD;
          China's auto market is among the best in the world, but its engines have always been constrained.
          Looking at China's industrial development, despite its large scale, due to the lack of a fatal shortcoming such as "core", it has always been in a weak position of "passive beating" in industrial development, while developed countries control core technologies and key materials or key components. Hold firm control of the industry initiative.
          Some time ago I saw a news saying that BOE burned hundreds of billions of yuan and became the world's largest manufacturer of flat panel displays. The shipments of smartphone LCD screens and tablet computer screens have ranked first in the world. LCD TV displays The world's third, changed the situation of China's annual import of LCD screens worth hundreds of billions of yuan.
To be honest, I was very impressed by the news. On the one hand, it can be seen that China has undergone earth-shaking changes since the reform and opening up. Many industries have changed from blank to the largest in the world just like the flat industry, solving a large number of employment problems and increasing China's GDP. The country has also developed from "one poor and two white" to the second largest economy in the world;
On the other hand, it has caused long-term worries and anxieties about China's industrial development is large but not strong, heavy output value is light R & D, focus on scale and mass ignore the core technology! At present, the core technologies, key materials and components of many industries in China are monopolized by companies from developed countries such as Europe, the United States, and Japan. Most of these monopolistic companies are invisible champions of the industry. They are the only or very few companies in the world that can make modern high-end industries indispensable. Irreplaceable key components and materials to achieve the ultimate company, from precision machine tools, semiconductor processing equipment, aircraft engines, as small as a ballpoint pen core, high-speed rail screws, electronics chip, LCD spacer microspheres , Conductive gold balls for microelectronic links, chromatographic column packing for analysis and detection, separation and purification chromatography media for biopharmaceuticals, etc.
It can be said that if a small foreign invisible champion company fails to supply relevant materials, it can paralyze China's trillion-scale industry. This is not an alarmist, but a cruel reality we face.
Therefore, as long as irreplaceable key components and materials are in the hands of invisible champions abroad, China's industry can no longer escape the passive situation of "assembly factories and low-end operations." At present, China must lead any strategic industry, promote the national economy to move towards the mid-to-high end of the global value chain, realize industrial transformation and upgrading, and enhance economic innovation and competitiveness. It is not dependent on investing in more downstream giant assembly and processing plants. It is necessary to cultivate more upstream invisible champion companies with independent core technologies, key materials and components, so as to have core competitiveness in major industries in order to break through the bottleneck of China's economic development.
The invisible champion will become the decisive point and the key to China's transition from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power.

Analysis of the Resource Advantages of China's Rapidly Expanding Industry
          In recent years, China has gradually become the world's manufacturing center, and the scale of many manufacturing fields has leapt to the first place in the world. This is due to China's unique four major resource advantages:
          The first is market advantage. China is the largest country in the world with the largest population and huge purchasing power. With economic development and wealth accumulation, the market potential is increasing. The huge consumer demand has enabled Chinese enterprises to develop rapidly and easily form large-scale industries. At present, many Chinese market demands have leapt to the top in the world, such as steel, plastics, food, electronic devices, etc .;
          The second is labor advantage. China has a large population and can provide abundant labor resources for industrial development. Therefore, labor-intensive light industries such as clothing, textiles, toys, leather, and downstream assembly industries such as flat panel displays have absolute development advantages in China;
          The third is capital advantage. Since China's reform and opening up, the country has accumulated a lot of wealth and capital, which can provide strong financial support for industrial development;
          Fourth, institutional advantages. China is a centralized country. Under the conditions of a socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics, the country can concentrate all kinds of resources and forces to do major things. In order to enhance the competitive advantage of strategic industries, relevant preferential policies can be introduced at the national level, and even huge investments are invested to support it.
Whether it is the BOE LCD panel industry we mentioned earlier, or our proud high-speed rail, it is a good example. With the support of the country, China's backward LCD flat panel display production technology can be quickly changed, and hundreds of billions of LCDs are imported every year. The state of the display, the country strongly supports BOE to invest hundreds of billions of yuan in the construction of LCD panel lines, even if the company's huge losses for many years can continue, and finally become the world's largest LCD panel shipments. Without strong national policies and financial support, and relying entirely on market-oriented operations, BOE is afraid that it will not be able to survive and continue to develop.
Similarly, the reason why China's high-speed rail can quickly expand to become the number one in the world is also because of the strong support of the country's fiscal and government resources.

Probe into the Part-time Working Mode Behind Scale
          In China, a considerable number of industries are expanding rapidly in a short period of time, and under the strong background of no shortage of markets, people, money, or government support, why is there always more than scale and insufficient competitiveness? The main reason is that China's economic development history is short, technology accumulation is small, research and development capabilities are weak, and many core technologies and key materials are monopolized by developed countries.
          The ZTE chip incident and Huawei memory incident clearly exposed the embarrassment and frustration of China's fragile, vulnerable, and lack of voice. Taking the liquid crystal display industry as an example, although the Chinese liquid crystal panel industry is large in scale, it is basically a processing and assembly type. Not only does the production line have to be imported from Japan, but many key materials for manufacturing the panel must also rely on imports.
          Therefore, seemingly booming production, in fact, are the Japanese equipment and material manufacturers who make a lot of money. The Japanese transferred the LCD panel to China to use only China ’s rich labor, land resources and a large amount of capital. They rely on the monopoly of key materials and equipment to easily obtain huge profits from China, and then use these profits for development The new display technology will be sold to China to earn more profits after upgrading. As a result, Chinese companies in the downstream of the industry chain have been buying and buying, from the 5th generation line to the 6th generation line, to the 7th generation line to the 8th generation line, to the current 10th generation line, each line of investment has reached tens of billions. .
What is even more astounding is that these investment-intensive production lines require key Japanese technologies and materials to be used for production. That is to say, the opening of the production line means that China must purchase a large amount of Japanese materials at the same time, and supply will be cut off in a day. The 100 million investment production line was immediately paralyzed.
          An invisible champion in Japan that holds key materials can jam China's trillion-dollar industry. In other words, if the Chinese do not own the core technology, no matter how large the industrial volume is, they can only be passive.
          Then, why not rely on the huge scale of the display industry, the large number of application talents, and the support of the country's capital to develop innovative display production technologies and get rid of the passive situation of working for others? Not because we don't want to do it, but because the development of new display technology often requires the cooperation of upstream material manufacturers. At present, most of the key upstream materials are monopolized by the Japanese hidden champions. Even if Chinese display technology scientists have very good technology and ideas, if there is no supply and cooperation from upstream material manufacturers, it would be like a clever woman who ca n’t cook without rice and ca n’t convert technology into a product.
This is the grim reality facing China!
If you want to truly control your destiny and make Chinese manufacturing a positive interaction in the entire industrial chain, you don't have to buy more, larger and more advanced downstream assembly lines. Although buying assembly lines can increase employment, To rapidly expand GDP, we must resolve to start from the source, guide and support enterprises to focus on the development and manufacturing of core technologies and key materials, focus on maximizing core components and upstream products, and focus on becoming an invisible champion in market segments. In order to break through the bottleneck of the manufacture of key materials and core components, it has killed the siege of foreign companies and provided a solid foundation for the restructuring and development of China's industry.

Unlocking the "password" that restricts key technologies
          The industrial scale of a country often depends on the market, labor, land resources, and national capital strength. Relying on the advantages of a large market, abundant labor resources and strong national capital strength, China has successfully enlarged many industries in a very short period of time. However, the development of key materials and core components of the modern industry does not have much to do with the market, labor, land resources, and national capital strength. Instead, it depends on a country's overall scientific and technological innovation capabilities, industrialization level, and comprehensive national strength. These are precisely the gaps between China and developed countries.
          From a strategic and overall perspective, the breakthrough capability of key core technologies determines the success or failure of corporate competition and international competition, and even has a huge impact on national security and national survival. In many areas of China, key technologies have long been constrained by people. Only by breaking through the technical bottlenecks of key materials and core components and breaking the long-term monopoly of foreign companies can China's major industries have the right to speak in the world, and China's industry can change from big to strong. Judging from the actual situation, in order to achieve the above goals, there is still a long way to go. We must clearly understand that it is not only technical issues that restrict the R & D breakthrough of key materials and core components, but also the external environment and national policies. And deep issues such as corporate perception and entrepreneurial mindset.

R & D speed is hindered by poor basic materials and equipment
          High-end emerging industries such as liquid crystal displays have extremely high requirements for the performance and quality of key materials and components, so research and development and production technology are difficult. Although China is a major producer of basic raw materials, such as the production capacity of stainless steel and many chemical basic raw materials, it ranks first in the world. However, due to the lack of high-performance stainless steel and high-quality chemical basic raw materials, related materials and equipment produced from it have been used as raw materials. Cannot meet the production needs of high-end industries.
It can be said that the quality of basic raw materials directly affects the research and development progress and industrialization success of key materials and components in the industry. The delay in the industrialization process caused by the quality of the basic materials encountered when I returned to China to start a business as a "spacer microsphere" for liquid crystal displays is a typical example.
The LCD screen consists of "spacer microspheres", "mixed traces" in the liquid crystal, and "standing" between the glass panels. It mainly plays the role of "skeleton" and can precisely control the thickness of the glass panel. It's like calcium in human bones. Without it, the LCD panel can't stand up.
          Although liquid crystal "spacer microspheres" are only composed of ordinary polystyrene and divinylbenzene materials, the polymers used for liquid crystal display have extremely high requirements for the quality and performance of microspheres, and must have a high degree of particle size accuracy, Extremely narrow particle size distribution, excellent mechanical strength, smooth surface properties, extremely high cleanliness, and extremely low metal impurities. Therefore, the preparation technology barriers are extremely high. For a long time, only two Japanese companies in the world can produce.
In the development of liquid crystal spacer microsphere materials, we first encountered the problem of poor quality of domestic basic materials. Styrene is one of the general chemical monomers, and its domestic production capacity ranks first in the world. However, domestic styrene and divinylbenzene have a high content of impurities (especially high content of nano impurities), and the spacer products produced by them have low mechanical strength and large deformation, which cannot meet the requirements for controlling liquid crystal displays. The company had to spend a lot of Time to solve the problem of monomer purity.
          In addition, in the process of industrialization, we also encountered the problem of unqualified equipment due to the poor performance of stainless steel. The production of high-performance microspheres requires a stainless steel reactor. After several tests, it was found that the spacer microspheres produced by domestic reactors had an iron content exceeding the standard and could not meet the high-end requirements of liquid crystal displays. It took a year later Many domestic reactors have tried the same problem, and the imported iron content has reached the standard. Paying such a large time cost and spending huge human and financial resources, I got such a ridiculous conclusion; the quality of domestic stainless steel is like this, there are few real stainless steels, and high-performance stainless steels need to be imported!
Therefore, although we have developed advanced microsphere manufacturing technology than Japan, due to the quality of domestic raw materials and stainless steel performance, we have to spend a lot of time and energy to solve the problem of poor basic materials, and finally realize the spacer microsphere industry. Into. From this case, we can see how difficult it is for China to do research and development of high-tech products, especially for key materials and components of modern industries: not only to solve key technical barriers, but also to solve the problem of poor quality of supporting basic materials and equipment! I think this may be one of the important reasons why China has trained a large number of scientific researchers, published the most articles in the world, and the result conversion rate is extremely low.
Therefore, to solve the key materials and core components of the modern industry, we must first improve the quality of basic materials and instruments throughout China. Otherwise, even if we have many talents who solve key material and core component manufacturing technologies, it is difficult to make high-performance materials and components. Components to meet the needs of the modern industry.

Impetuous society and inadequate basic innovation lead to blocked R & D driving forces
          Since the reform and development, China's changes have changed with each passing day. At the same time of rapid development, it has also brought impatience and quick success to the whole society, and has caused some extremely unreasonable phenomena. For example, the rapidly rising housing prices have given the real estate speculators huge wealth, while the hard-working people are getting poorer. The serious and unreasonable distribution of social wealth has led to an increasingly serious speculative mentality, which has undermined China's traditional virtue of hardworking and getting rich.
          However, the R & D and industrialization of key materials and technologies required by almost all industries require long-term investment and experience accumulation to succeed.
          However, few companies in China are willing to spend ten years developing a technology and product. Everyone likes short-lived projects and is unwilling to invest funds and time in advanced technology research and development and materials with large investment, long cycle and high risk. Manufacturing field.
The invisible champions in Europe, America, and Japan are all formed after intensive cultivation in a field for decades. Therefore, if China wants to cultivate invisible champions, it must first have a more reasonable wealth distribution system. Social wealth should be tilted to those who contribute to society rather than speculators, so that technical talents can sink their hearts for a long time to achieve key technologies. Extreme, let more companies become invisible champions.
On the other hand, although the state has invested a lot of research funding to support the development of scientific research institutes in universities, due to the current evaluation system for university scientific researchers, which mainly depends on the number of published articles, scientific researchers put more energy and time on how to publish Many articles instead of in-depth research on original technology or practical technology to solve the core technology of the industry.
The evaluation system that takes the number of papers as the king and the unreasonable funding control and distribution system make it impossible for scientific researchers to do original research or focus on core technologies of industrialization, but to do research that is easy to produce articles. Make research input and output disproportionate. For example, although the number of articles published in the field of nanotechnology in China has leapt to the top in the world, the number of articles does not match the development of domestic industrialization technology, and the industrialization of nano-application technology and nano-materials is basically blank. Therefore, only by scientifically and scientifically adjusting the scientific research evaluation system and perfecting the incentive mechanism, will it be possible to achieve more achievements in the transformation of national research investment, better serve the industry, and better return to society.
          Social impetuousness has a lot to do with government policies. Because the previous policy was a GDP-oriented evaluation system, governments at all levels are willing to invest in developing downstream assembly industries that can grow quickly and easily increase GDP and employment. At the same time, due to excessive investment by local governments, many industries have formed vicious competition in China. For example, the solar panel industry is a typical example of overheating caused by excessive government investment. 上游关键材料和部件需要长期的研发投入,规模也不会快速放大,因此政府在这方面的投资意愿和力度就明显不足。









国内市场推广难度大研发成果推广受阻

          由于当前中国大多新兴产业都是依靠引进的国外技术,且关键材料都使用国外进口产品。因此中国企业开发出来的关键材料要导入市场就面临先天不足的问题。
          首先,关键材料和部件对终端产品性能影响极大,如果质量有问题,会给终端客户造成巨大损失,因此一般情况下,客户不愿意承担这种风险,导致国产材料替换进口材料的难度很大。
即使客户有意愿导入国产品牌材料,验证周期也非常长。有的材料虽然单价非常高,但在整个设备的成本比例比较低,客户更没有意愿去做新产品尝试和替换。比如说间隔物微球,虽然单价很高,但由于用量少,占整个显示屏材料成本不到1%。而这个材料对整个显示屏的质量又有非常重要的影响,所以客户往往不愿冒险采用国产产品。

          其次,国人对国产和进口产品的偏见也会导致国产产品导入困难。长期以来,中国生产厂家习惯于生产中低端产品,对技术和产品质量重视不够,因此普遍的印象是国内产品质量不行,用起来不放心,客户对国产产品导入会非常慎重甚至会提高导入门槛。
更有甚者,如果客户使用了国产产品出问题,第一时间会怪罪到国内原材料的质量问题;而如果客户用的进口材料生产出问题,反而会反省自己工艺有什么问题。因此国产产品要导入客户,不仅要有超高的产品质量,还要贴近客户需求,熟悉客户工艺,遇到问题时可以及时帮助客户解决实际问题。

          要解决国产产品市场推广问题,需要多方结合、达成共识:
一方面,生产材料厂家确实要做好质量控制体系,保证产品的高质量和高效用,要有耐心去培育市场、贴近需求,而且随着技术的进步和经验的累积,国产的产品质量会越来越好甚至有可能超越进口产品。
另外一方面,下游厂家也需要有更加开放的心态,积极与上游国产材料厂家配合。上游关键材料和部件成功产业化会极大促进下游厂家的国际竞争力,实现互利共赢。同时国家也应出台一些政策鼓励下游厂家使用国产材料。
知识产权保护不力,研发能动性受阻

          由于目前国内法律对知识产权保护不够,因此经常出现投入很长时间大量资源开发出的产品和技术被仿造,被偷走,甚至整个技术团队给挖走,给公司造成巨大损失的情况。由于中国知识产权得不到尊重,造成投入与产出不成正比,严重限制了企业对关键材料和部件开发的动力。
因此很多企业都愿意聚焦在短平快的低端制造业上或风险相对小的下游组装上,不愿意投入技术研发长,风险大的高技术产业。有的企业即使想做技术含量高的产品开发也会因为担心技术泄密而不得不采取一些保密手段。

          本来高技术开发需要共享信息,激发大家的灵感才容易促进新的想法,解决遇到的问题,但由于保密的原因很多信息无法在技术团队上分享和交流,严重影响了项目的进展,并限制了技术研发的快速进展和试验成功。因此加大对知识产权的保护,用法律为自主研发企业保驾护航,才能让中国真正投入研发创新的企业得到回报,让靠投机或剽窃技术的企业得到惩罚,营造企业成长为隐形冠军的良性发展环境。

税收政策局限性导致关键材料研发企业发展受阻

          关键材料和核心部件的制备具有技术壁垒高,附加值高等特点,但同时也具有研发投入大、周期长的风险。这种企业的活化劳动成本主要在研发投入、人员工资、产地租金等方面,大大高于传统企业,如果按中国现行的增值税抵扣方式,该部分成本不能抵扣,从而使企业的税负较高,大大降低了企业盈利能力,使得企业在前期没有足够的资金投入在更多的研发新产品新技术上。
其实中国政府也意识到增值税会影响高科技企业发展,因此在一些特殊领域如软件、芯片及生物制药产业都有特殊的增值税政策。而与这些产业异曲同工的关键材料制造企业目前却不能享受这些特殊政策。

          因此,国家要解决关键材料和核心部件问题,就必须完善支持企业创新的普惠性税收政策,拓展高新技术企业税收优惠行业范围,切实解决先进材料制造企业面临的税收窘境,为企业减负,为创新添翼,才能有利于中国高科技产业的发展,才能让有志于与国外垄断企业抗衡的科技研型企业真正走上隐形冠军的强企之路。

培养隐形冠军企业是中国产业转型升级的“破局之举”

          中国要真正完成经济转型,从一个经济大国变成强国,必须把解决好产业的关键材料和部件放在首位,必须培养更多的隐形冠军,才能真正实现产业发展的大而强,才能拥有独立自主的话语权。“隐形冠军”是指那些非常专注、具有全球性或区域性市场领袖地位的中小企业,他们的产品可能很小,不跟消费者直接见面,不易被人觉察,加上自身低调,公众知名度比较低,但在各自行业内往往是游戏规则的制定者,是产业发展无可撼动的霸主。
基于此,中国的企业要想成为隐形冠军,需要有极强的创新能力,坚持长期不懈的研发,用匠心、耐心、恒心和信心,把技术和材料做到极致。

坚持创新占据技术制高点

          一个公司能否在全球的竞争中成为隐形冠军,取决于这个公司是否拥有强大的创新能力,是否占据世界关键材料制备技术的制高点。无论是电子产业的芯片,还是飞机发动机,还是看去简单的圆珠笔芯和高铁的螺丝,都是凭借先进的技术和精湛的工艺制作而成。 要做到一个领域制高点的技术,往往不是靠人多或短期砸钱就可以快速获得的。中国过去那种凭借众多劳动力资源和大量投资来迅速把产业做大的模式是行不通的。
当前,中国最需要的,是要形成一种创新的科研环境,吸引一批世界顶尖科学家可以安下心来,通过长期的创新和技术积累占据技术的制高点,从而解决关键材料和部件的国产化。

坚持专注和坚守做到持之以恒不动摇

          中国发展到现在成为世界第二大经济体,拥有丰富的劳动力资源、资本、人才、市场、产业链,最大的短板是缺乏耐心和坚守。
现代产业的发展越来越精密化、自动化、高性能化,这些发展趋势对关键材料的要求越来越高。同时由于关键材料和部件对下游产品性能影响极大,因此在材料领域往往赢者通吃的局面,即做得最好的企业逐渐成为产业的隐形冠军,形成独霸一方的垄断局面,做得质量差的企业基本无法生存。中国已经拥有强大的组装能力,只要拥有了关键材料和部件就会迅速做出相关产品,同样,谁垄断了这些关键材料,谁就在产业链拥有至高无上的话语权。
隐形冠军企业就是要坚守一种使命感和民族情怀,不忘初心,一但认准一个目标就持之以恒做下去直到成功。这种专注和长期坚持的精神在当今浮躁社会里尤其显得难能可贵。

坚持工匠精神把产品和工艺做到极致

          “技可进乎道,艺可通乎神。”工匠精神的核心内涵是精益求精,要把产品和工作做到极致,必须靠一丝不苟和严谨务实的态度,对产品不断改进、创新和优化,必须把掌握行业内最顶尖的技术,打造质量最高的产品作为矢志不渝的追求。我曾参观过德国一家生产工业风扇的中小企业,为了检测风扇运行时的噪音,特意建造了先进的静音实验室,置身其中,可以听到自己心跳的声音。
为提升品质舍得投入,敢于投入,这样的产品无疑具有强大的国际竞争力。工匠精神不仅是精益求精,更是一种追求、一种负责任的态度、是耐得住寂寞的承诺。我想,这也应该成为中国隐形冠军企业的追求,用最好的技术制造最好用的产品。
来源:创新社
 

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